2.2. All Affiliates that engage in email marketing must have the consent of the recipient to send such email and shall maintain records evidencing such consent including, without limitation: (a) Subscriber opt-in date; (b) Registration source; (c) First name; (d) Last name; (e) E-mail address; (f) Privacy Policy of Source Site; (g) Any other information collected; and (h) Affiliate will supply such records to Company within one (1) business day of a request.
More than 25 percent of internet users report that they will block ads this year, and over the next five years, ad blocking is expected to increase by 50 percent. Ad blocking in the U.S. continues to cause headaches for online advertisers and publishers, and the phenomenon is expected to grow by double digits this year and next. In 2016, for example, the number of Americans using ad blockers increased 34.4 percent over last year.
If an affiliate partner would like to use the Buying Options API there are some guidelines they will want to follow to ensure they receive their affiliate credit. Currently there is NOT a way to pass LID into the Buying Options API. This is something we are investigating for the future. An affiliate can use the Buying Options API to identify available offers but will need to do secondary call to our Products API using their LID to generate the appropriate affiliate LinkShare urls. It is also not possible to use the addToCartUrl or linkShareAffiliateAddToCartUrl with the expectation that you are adding Open Box product to the cart (as opposed to a new product) without special javascript added to your page. If you are interested in doing this please contact us at developer@bestbuy.com and we can provide examples and guidance.
The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.
Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!

A trick banner is a banner ad where the ad copy imitates some screen element users commonly encounter, such as an operating system message or popular application message, to induce ad clicks.[34] Trick banners typically do not mention the advertiser in the initial ad, and thus they are a form of bait-and-switch.[35][36] Trick banners commonly attract a higher-than-average click-through rate, but tricked users may resent the advertiser for deceiving them.[37]


When searching for the best productivity apps for iOS, you look for ease of use and efficiency above anything else. If you are to improve your productivity, you need something that takes away unnecessary distractions, and allows you to structure your day effectively. We know how it is to be a busy affiliate marketer, and we think we've got just the thing for you. Here are, in the opinion of Online Affiliate World, the nine best Apple productivity apps around.
HomeNav will remain solely responsible for the operation of the HomeNav Website, and Affiliate will remain solely responsible for the operation of Affiliate’s site. Each party acknowledges that its website may be subject to temporary downtime due to causes beyond its reasonable control, and that the other party retains sole right and control over the programming, content, and conduct of transactions over its website or service.
The Affiliate marketing concept is simple: Brands hire affiliates, who may be bloggers, publishers, or other companies, to promote a product or service using their own blogs, websites, or social media channels. Affiliates are paid a share of any sales or a commission resulting from their efforts. Compensation for affiliates may also take the form of incentives, discounts, one-time offers, or giveaways.
Affiliate marketing is inevitable. No longer viewed as optional, it is a key component of a brand's marketing strategy.  As an agency, you need to exude your cross-channel expertise, but  doing so in the ever-changing digital landscape can be challenging. Pepperjam is here to help keep you ahead of the affiliate marketing channel curve, so you never fall behind.  

So as an affiliate marketer, you have to build a compelling website, attract traffic to that website, and retain a consistent audience in order to sell ads. Then, you join an affiliate network like Amazon or eBay, and they show ads on your site. It’s important to note that affiliates don’t earn money by simply serving ads. They have to direct qualified traffic to a company’s site so that the company can earn more in sales.

5.1. We may modify any of the terms and conditions in this Agreement at any time at our sole discretion. In such event, you will be notified by email, (sent to the email address provided in the course of your registration with the Company). Modifications may include, but are not limited to, changes in the payment procedures and the AWeber Affiliate Program rules. If any modification is unacceptable to you, you may terminate this Agreement. Your continued participation in the Program following the email of the change notice and the new Agreement on our site will indicate your agreement to the changes.
It includes email marketing, search engine marketing (SEM), social media marketing, many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising. Like other advertising media, online advertising frequently involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content, and an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher's content. Other potential participants include advertising agencies who help generate and place the ad copy, an ad server which technologically delivers the ad and tracks statistics, and advertising affiliates who do independent promotional work for the advertiser.
An in-house affiliate manager often works alone and can’t rely on a centralized team of experts to assist with creative, recruitment, analysis and tech. Instead, these team members are often in different departments and are far removed from the affiliate marketing channel. Due to this, the affiliate channel falls by the wayside in a sea of competing initiatives.
Sponsored search (also called sponsored links, search ads, or paid search) allows advertisers to be included in the sponsored results of a search for selected keywords. Search ads are often sold via real-time auctions, where advertisers bid on keywords.[19]:118[53] In addition to setting a maximum price per keyword, bids may include time, language, geographical, and other constraints.[19]:118 Search engines originally sold listings in order of highest bids.[19]:119 Modern search engines rank sponsored listings based on a combination of bid price, expected click-through rate, keyword relevancy and site quality.[21]
Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 3 above and otherwise in this Agreement, we grant you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, revocable license to (i) access our website through the Links solely in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and (ii) solely in connection with such Links, to use the FatCow trademark and logo and similar identifying material provided by us (collectively, the "Licensed Materials"), for the sole purpose of selling FatCow Products and Services on your Affiliate Site and as approved in advance by us. You may not alter, modify, or change the Licensed Materials in any way. You are only entitled to use the Licensed Materials while you are an Affiliate in good standing and in compliance with all of the terms of this Agreement.
Within an affiliate agreement, the affiliate acts as an independent contractor without a joint venture or other legal entity. By signing the affiliate agreement, the affiliate acknowledges understanding of company policies indicated in the website and agrees to the outlined terms. The affiliate agreement may also require that the affiliate agree not to include any spam on the website and generally comply with federal and state anti-spam laws. 

Customers who buy products through the Program will be deemed to be customers of Ticketfly. Accordingly, all Ticketfly.com rules, policies, and operating procedures concerning customer orders, customer service, and product sales will apply to such customers with respect to their transactions at Ticketfly.com. We may change our policies and operating procedures at any time consistent with applicable laws. Since prices and availability may vary from time to time, Affiliate may not display Ticketfly price information on Affiliate’s Site. Ticketfly will use commercially reasonable efforts to present current and accurate information, but cannot guarantee the availability or price of any particular event.
Within an affiliate agreement, the affiliate acts as an independent contractor without a joint venture or other legal entity. By signing the affiliate agreement, the affiliate acknowledges understanding of company policies indicated in the website and agrees to the outlined terms. The affiliate agreement may also require that the affiliate agree not to include any spam on the website and generally comply with federal and state anti-spam laws.

The term of this agreement will begin upon HomeNav’s acceptance of Affiliate’s Website in the Affiliate Marketing Program and Affiliate’s acceptance of this agreement and will end when terminated as described in this agreement. Either HomeNav or Affiliate may terminate this agreement at any time, with or without cause, by giving the other at least five days’ written notice of termination. Affiliate is only eligible to earn commissions on sales occurring during the term of this agreement, and commissions earned through the date of termination will remain payable only if open orders are not canceled. HomeNav may withhold final payment for a reasonable time to ensure against cancellations.
Blackfox is a performance based marketing company, founded in 2012 in Richmond Hill, US. The company’s affiliate platform provides solutions for  premium publishers with high quality traffic, app owners with a big social following, as well as businesses with lots of subscribers. For affiliates, with a great number of followers on social networks, Blackfox offers a solution to monetize on those audiences. Affiliates, with a great number of subscribers, get the right tool to provide people, who has a trust in their brand, relevant product to discover.
Find a product(s) that resonate with your personally, something that you would either buy for yourself or just in general you feel positive about. Throughout your journey as an affiliate marketer, you’ll need to write lots of text creatives, decide on what photo or video creatives to choose for an ad. All these ad materials will have to be compelling enough for people to click on and purchase a product you’re offering. Otherwise it’ll be really hard in a long run to promote something that you don’t care about.
For publishers and media buyers (or ‘affiliates’) CPA programs offer the ability to generate significant revenues with the right traffic.  If publishers identify traffic that converts particularly well for a certain type of offer (e.g. dating) then they can generate a much higher eCPM or overall revenue using affiliate advertising than typical cost per click based ads.  In addition, smart affiliates or media buyers can make a margin by buying traffic and optimising it to generate arbitrage between its cost and the value generated through the CPA offers.  However, achieving this can be challenging on mobile given the large number of parameters (device, operating system etc) that need to be tracked and managed.
888.com is a premium gaming destination and a well established name in the casino and poker circuit. Its site offers numerous sub-brands including 888sport, 888ladies, 888bingo, 888casino and 888poker, as well as ReefClub Casino. The 888 family of companies attract millions of players, and the company provides affiliates with frequent promotions to keep players interested.
There is no one affiliate advertising method that will work for everyone. The vast majority of successful affiliate marketers have only become successful through testing trial and error. Do not be afraid of failure, especially what you’re new to affiliate advertising. There is a big learning curve involved. But once you master this, it is something that can make you money every single day with very little effort. Believe in yourself, keep going, and never give up. Because you can fail to follow in different times but if you succeed once your entire life could change.
Affiliate shall not use, procure, bid on, or otherwise arrange for a Sponsored Link (defined below) on any Internet search engine, portal, sponsored advertising service or other search or referral service (a “Service”) which Sponsored Link uses or includes the terms “Ticketfly,” “Ticketfly.com,” or any other trademarks, trade names, service marks, corporate names, or other similar general intellectual property right owned or licensed by Ticketfly or any parent, subsidiary, or other affiliate of Ticketfly.

The affiliate market has been instrumental for selling of many kinds of products and services and in particular helped businesses to gain new leads, offer coupons, get more subscribers and more. With the advance of mobile, new types of offers have been introduced, the most common are mobile content, mobile subscription, mobile games and app installs. Let’s take a closer look at each of these: 

Privacy/Data Collection. MA will at all times during the term of this Agreement maintain appropriate technical and organizational measures to protect any end-user data that it collects, accesses or processes in connection with this Agreement against unauthorized or unlawful use, disclosure, processing or alteration. MA will act only on Company's instructions in relation to the collection, use, disclosure and processing of any such end-user data, but in all instances in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations.

Online marketing platform (OMP) is an integrated web-based platform that combines the benefits of a business directory, local search engine, search engine optimisation (SEO) tool, customer relationship management (CRM) package and content management system (CMS). Ebay and Amazon are used as online marketing and logistics management platforms. On Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, LinkedIn, and other Social Media, retail online marketing is also used. Online business marketing platforms such as Marketo, Aprimo, MarketBright and Pardot have been bought by major IT companies (Eloqua-Oracle, Neolane-Adobe and Unica-IBM).
HomeNav hereby grants to Affiliate during the term of this agreement a non-exclusive, non-transferable, royalty-free license to establish hyperlinks between Affiliate’s Website and the HomeNav Website and to use HomeNav’s trade names, logos, trademarks, and service marks (the “HomeNav Marks”) on Affiliate’s Website solely as is reasonably necessary to establish and promote Links and to otherwise perform Affiliate’s obligations under this agreement, subject to HomeNav’s prior approval. Affiliate shall use the HomeNav Marks strictly in accordance with HomeNav’s trademark policy if HomeNav makes such a policy available to Affiliate.
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. 

Since the late 90s digital affiliate marketing has grown to a big industry, in 2016 US-based retailers have spent $4.7 billion on affiliate marketing. According to estimates by 2021 the affiliate marketing industry will grow to $6.8 billion. Not surprisingly, given the size of the sector, there are a lot of different affiliate marketing companies operating in various market segments.
There is no one affiliate advertising method that will work for everyone. The vast majority of successful affiliate marketers have only become successful through testing trial and error. Do not be afraid of failure, especially what you’re new to affiliate advertising. There is a big learning curve involved. But once you master this, it is something that can make you money every single day with very little effort. Believe in yourself, keep going, and never give up. Because you can fail to follow in different times but if you succeed once your entire life could change.
More than 25 percent of internet users report that they will block ads this year, and over the next five years, ad blocking is expected to increase by 50 percent. Ad blocking in the U.S. continues to cause headaches for online advertisers and publishers, and the phenomenon is expected to grow by double digits this year and next. In 2016, for example, the number of Americans using ad blockers increased 34.4 percent over last year.
Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]
1.1. This Agreement contains the complete terms and conditions governing your relationship with the Company and, if applicable, your participation in the AWeber Affiliate Program (the "Program"). The purpose of this Agreement is to allow HTML linking between your website and the AWeber website for the purpose of referring potential customers to AWeber. Please note that throughout this Agreement, "we," "us," and "our" refer to AWeber, and "you," "your," and "yours" refer to the Affiliate.
JVZoo works exclusively with digital products, primarily e-commerce, online courses, and internet marketing offers. Because there are no limits placed on the number of links, buy buttons, or calls to action on a website, JVZoo can sometimes be somewhat low quality both in terms of offers as well as products. Nonetheless, it has proven itself to be a fierce competitor to companies like ClickBank.

This is simplified, according to the IAB. Exchanges may try to unload unsold ("remnant") space at low prices through other exchanges. Some agencies maintain semi-permanent pre-cached bids with ad exchanges, and those may be examined before going out to additional demand side platforms for bids. The process for mobile advertising is different and may involve mobile carriers and handset software manufacturers.[46]


For publishers and media buyers (or ‘affiliates’) CPA programs offer the ability to generate significant revenues with the right traffic.  If publishers identify traffic that converts particularly well for a certain type of offer (e.g. dating) then they can generate a much higher eCPM or overall revenue using affiliate advertising than typical cost per click based ads.  In addition, smart affiliates or media buyers can make a margin by buying traffic and optimising it to generate arbitrage between its cost and the value generated through the CPA offers.  However, achieving this can be challenging on mobile given the large number of parameters (device, operating system etc) that need to be tracked and managed.
ServInt’s PowerPartner™ Affiliate Marketing Program entitles you to earn cash, hosting credits and multiple server purchase discounts. It costs nothing to join, and you don’t even have to be a customer to receive cash payments for customers you refer. However, in order to receive cash payments or hosting credits, you must agree to the following PowerPartner™ Affiliate Marketing Agreement by clicking on I Agree. After that, you can start creating your links and managing your campaigns.
You’re obviously wondering why I pulled this app. The biggest reason is because it required a lot of upkeep based on how I built it – I had to manually update the XML and keep the installations fresh. By the end of the first week I was getting a lot of people who were pissed that the product prices weren’t accurate – when BB changes their pricing on the master XML feed, I would have to re-export it, modify it for my own structure, then upload it to my own site. This included sales and promotions.
Flexoffers is another huge affiliate marketing network. They pay you (the affiliate) a lot faster than others in the industry. It has more than 10 years of experience in the field. While they do not offer anything that is neither groundbreaking nor revolutionary, they do provide a solid array of tools and features that will surely aid you in your campaigns. In addition to the fast payouts, Flexoffers lets you choose from thousands of affiliate programs to promote, offers various content delivery formats, and more.
Force Majeure. Neither party will be responsible for failure or delay of performance if caused by: an act of war, hostility, or sabotage; act of God; electrical, internet, or telecommunication outage that is not caused by the obligated party; government restrictions; or other event outside the reasonable control of the obligated party. Each party will use reasonable efforts to mitigate the effect of a force majeure event.
​eCommerce has gone global and knows no borders. As a result, shoppers are more often making retail purchases from companies based outside of their own country. Borderfree Chief Strategy Officer Kris Green commented on this trend saying, “You [the consumer] don’t necessarily know or care, you just know that it’s coming to you and you know what you’re going to have to pay. I find more and more consumers just want to be able to see the price, have no surprises and will be indifferent as to where the product is coming from.”
The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.

The landing page displaying the personalized discount code is configured to prevent search engines from crawling the page. This is important, because we don’t want customers coming to this page organically – only affiliate referrals should see this page. To prevent search engines from crawling the page, we added a “Disallow” line in our robots.txt file and the land page also has a line of html that reads:
This agreement has been made in and will be construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of the State of Missouri without giving effect to Missouri’s conflict of laws principles. Any action arising hereunder will be brought exclusively in the state courts located in St. Louis County, Missouri or in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.
Use above mentioned technique to find regional affiliate networks but make sure networks you find do work with affiliates from other countries. In many countries local affiliate industry market is presented with big international companies and local-based players. A good example would be India, where you can register as an affiliate to work with Amazon India Affiliate Program, as well as Flipkart Affiliate Program and SnapDeal Affiliate Program.
A top contextual commerce company, Button connects mobile apps and sites from leading publishers -- Conde Nast, Huffington Post, Ibotta, and more -- to other apps, driving acquisition of valuable users. For example, readers of Conde Nast Traveler can peruse articles on destinations they want to visit, browse hotels on Hotels.com, and be sent directly to the Hotels.com app to fulfill their intent. Button makes affiliate spend more efficient by optimizing performance and rewards based on a customer's purchase history.
Affiliate marketing is an online advertising channel in which advertisers (online merchants that sell products or services) pay publishers (independent parties that promote the products or services of an advertiser on their Web site) only for results, such as a visitor making a purchase or filling out a form, rather than paying simply to reach a particular audience. This "pay-for-performance" model is in essence the modern version of the "finders'-fee" model, where individuals who introduce new clients to a business are compensated. The difference in the case of affiliate marketing is that advertisers pay their publishers only when the new client introduction results in a sale or a lead, making it a low-risk, high-reward environment for both parties.
That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.
8.4. Affiliate shall not transmit any so-called “interstitials,” “Parasiteware™,” “Parasitic Marketing,” “Shopping Assistance Application,” “Toolbar Installations and/or Add-ons,” “Shopping Wallets” or “deceptive pop-ups and/or pop-unders” to consumers from the time the consumer clicks on a qualifying link until such time as the consumer has fully exited Merchant’s site (i.e., no page from our site or any Merchant.com’s content or branding is visible on the end-user’s screen). As used herein a. “Parasiteware™” and “Parasitic Marketing” shall mean an application that (a) through accidental or direct intent causes the overwriting of affiliate and non affiliate commission tracking cookies through any other means than a customer initiated click on a qualifying link on a web page or email; (b) intercepts searches to redirect traffic through an installed software, thereby causing, pop ups, commission tracking cookies to be put in place or other commission tracking cookies to be overwritten where a user would under normal circumstances have arrived at the same destination through the results given by the search (search engines being, but not limited to, Google, MSN, Yahoo, Overture, AltaVista, Hotbot and similar search or directory engines); (c) set commission tracking cookies through loading of Merchant site in IFrames, hidden links and automatic pop ups that open Merchant.com’s site; (d) targets text on web sites, other than those web sites 100% owned by the application owner, for the purpose of contextual marketing; (e) removes, replaces or blocks the visibility of Affiliate banners with any other banners, other than those that are on web sites 100% owned by the owner of the application.
Retailers view app users as their biggest money makers, allocating ⅓ of all mobile ad spend on app install ads. There are a few reasons you should aim to know if a user is a new or existing customer to a merchant (including utilizing different acquisition incentives), but we’ll focus on routing. Today, the expected linking experience is standard — users tap a link in the publisher app and they are sent to the homepage of a merchant’s mobile website.
International transfers.  Where Applicable Data Protection Law in the European Economic Area ("EEA"), and/or its member states, United Kingdom and/or Switzerland (collectively for the purposes of this Addendum, the "EU'), applies to the Personal Data ("EU Personal Data"), neither party shall process any EU Personal Data (nor permit any EU Personal Data to be processed) in a territory outside of the EU  unless it has taken such measures as are necessary to ensure the transfer is in compliance with Applicable Data Protection Law. To the extent a Marketing Affiliate transfers EU Personal Data to HubSpot and HubSpot is located in a territory outside the EU that does not provide adequate protection for Personal Data (as determined by Applicable Data Protection Law), HubSpot agrees to abide by and process such EU Personal Data in accordance with the Standard Contractual Clauses for Controllers as approved by the European Commission and available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32004D0915 (as amended, superseded or updated from time to time) ("Model Clauses"), which are incorporated by reference in, and form an integral part of, this Addendum. HubSpot agrees that it is a "data importer" and the Marketing Affiliate is the "data exporter" under the Model Clauses (notwithstanding that HubSpot may be an entity located outside of the EEA).

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Its hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, and the Apple TV digital media player. Apple’s consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, and iCloud.


Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[29]
We analyze the types of reports which are being generated to both the advertiser and the publisher involved in the affiliate marketing campaign. The vendors which we recommend offer both parties with comprehensive reports which provide both an outline of the performance of a campaign and detailed information to help them better understand the most and least effective areas of performance. We also investigate the advice communicated to both parties and any additional information.
Many consumers have reservations about online behavioral targeting. By tracking users' online activities, advertisers are able to understand consumers quite well. Advertisers often use technology, such as web bugs and respawning cookies, to maximizing their abilities to track consumers.[60]:60[95] According to a 2011 survey conducted by Harris Interactive, over half of Internet users had a negative impression of online behavioral advertising, and forty percent feared that their personally-identifiable information had been shared with advertisers without their consent.[96][97] Consumers can be especially troubled by advertisers targeting them based on sensitive information, such as financial or health status.[95] Furthermore, some advertisers attach the MAC address of users' devices to their 'demographic profiles' so they can be retargeted (regardless of the accuracy of the profile) even if the user clears their cookies and browsing history.[citation needed]

People are embracing ad-blocking tools because they are tired of seeing irrelevant, intrusive ads. Consequently, ad-blocking tools also keep relevant ads from reaching potential customers. This is a major drawback for the digital marketing ecosystem of publishers, marketers, agencies, merchants, and other businesses that depend on advertising revenue.

For an affiliate or publisher point of view the CPM model advantage is that they get paid each time ads were shown in their inventory and it doesn’t matter if those ads lead to specific actions or not. But on the flip side this model doesn’t guarantee that you can make the most of your inventory, your audience may react better and take actions on some particular type of offers but you just don’t know what they are. In short it’s capable to generate for you a predictable income flow.

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