Affiliate marketing has now invaded Hollywood? We know it invaded US politics in Washington as some politicians (current and retired) are silent affiliate marketers or in MLM. Maybe we can look forward to hearing in the next few years about more celebrities going from actors and actresses to home-based affiliate marketers. Wouldn’t that be something?
Within an affiliate agreement, the affiliate acts as an independent contractor without a joint venture or other legal entity. By signing the affiliate agreement, the affiliate acknowledges understanding of company policies indicated in the website and agrees to the outlined terms. The affiliate agreement may also require that the affiliate agree not to include any spam on the website and generally comply with federal and state anti-spam laws.
Affiliate marketing programs are sometimes scrutinized more heavily than other online marketing channels. Organizations may be concerned that affiliate marketing will cannibalize sales that would have been generated anyway. Or worry whether affiliates will portray their brand in the correct manner. They may have concerns about the technical setup aspect or overpaying on commissions that haven’t been accurately tracked.
We love and back our product 100%, and we are very careful with how it’s promoted, so we want affiliates who are 100% behind us too! The prohibited promotional methods listed below aren’t meant to scare you off – they’re here to protect you, and us, and our customers from any freaky or fraudulent activity, which is something we take pretty seriously. We know you’ll understand. 🙂 But here they are in writing just in case you’re not totally sure what is and what isn’t allowed.
Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.

A pop-up ad is displayed in a new web browser window that opens above a website visitor's initial browser window.[31] A pop-under ad opens a new browser window under a website visitor's initial browser window.[24]:22 Pop-under ads and similar technologies are now advised against by online authorities such as Google, who state that they "do not condone this practice".[32]
For an affiliate or publisher point of view the CPM model advantage is that they get paid each time ads were shown in their inventory and it doesn’t matter if those ads lead to specific actions or not. But on the flip side this model doesn’t guarantee that you can make the most of your inventory, your audience may react better and take actions on some particular type of offers but you just don’t know what they are. In short it’s capable to generate for you a predictable income flow.
In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[41] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts. 

For more information and suggestions about how to comply with these guidelines, please visit our page entitled "Affiliate Disclosure Requirements and Examples." Please note that this page is only intended to provide guidance. It does not purport to provide legal advice and it does not guarantee that you'll be in compliance with FTC regulations should you follow the suggestions presented. You are advised to seek and obtain your own legal advice on how these rules apply to your website or other promotional activities for which you receive compensation.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[6] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[7] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[8]

Thanks to Shopify’s partners and app developers, figuring out how to create an affiliate program for your Shopify store is easy, as you can start by simply installing an affiliate app of your choosing. From there, each app will take you through an onboarding process that will get you up and running with an affiliate program catered to your business.


Wire Transfers is in fact the most popular payment method globally, but compared with above mentioned systems, it proceeds transactions slower and charges higher fees. The important part of the equation are intermediary banks that impose their own rules on translations. If you choose this option, you always need to check with your intermediary bank payments terms, fee and specific information it requires for your hard-earned affiliate commissions to be proceeded smoothly.
VigLink is an intermediary platform, so it can serve as a backdoor for affiliates who have previously been banned/suspended from working with other affiliate programs like Amazon. And while you can choose specific merchants or offers, VigLink can be set up to work automatically by scanning your published content and dynamically generating affiliate links, making it a great choice for established content producers who are looking for a simpler way to generate revenue via an affiliate program.
When recommended affiliate marketing companies, we believe it is important for the affiliate marketing company to have access to a large network of publishers and affiliates. Not only does there need to be a volume of a variety of advertisers and publishers, there needs to be a variety of different industries being represented with enough volume to ensure there are matching publishers for the interested affiliates.

Applicable Law. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, without regard to the conflict of laws provisions thereof. In the event either of us initiates an action in connection with this Agreement or any other dispute between the parties, the exclusive venue and jurisdiction of such action shall be in the state and federal courts in Boston, Massachusetts.
In quick and easy steps, launch campaigns on your sites and apps, analyze your site performance and optimize your revenue. Our business development team and our help desk will guide you into the code integration. We offer solutions for an unlimited number of sites and apps. Plus, you will access to your online statistics to optimize your campaigns in real-time following your business objectives.
HomeNav will be solely responsible for fulfilling all orders for its products and services and payment processing, and customers who buy products and services through the Affiliate Marketing Program will be deemed customers of HomeNav. Accordingly, all rules, policies, operating procedures, and information concerning customer orders and sales will apply to those customers, including HomeNav’s rules of privacy, confidentiality, terms of use, and terms of sale. HomeNav may change its policies, operating procedures, and terms of use and sale at any time without notice to Affiliate.

An affiliate marketing program is a lot of work, and in most situations there's a lot of competition so you're not going to be bringing in money immediately. Business owners and entrepreneurs suppose that all you need do is setup a site and choose an affiliate to associate with and then just let it run its course. But according to Three Ladders Marketing, only 0.6% of affiliate marketers surveyed have been in the game since 2013. That means that affiliate marketing takes time and effort to build and make money.
Affiliate marketing is an online advertising channel in which advertisers (online merchants that sell products or services) pay publishers (independent parties that promote the products or services of an advertiser on their Web site) only for results, such as a visitor making a purchase or filling out a form, rather than paying simply to reach a particular audience. This "pay-for-performance" model is in essence the modern version of the "finders'-fee" model, where individuals who introduce new clients to a business are compensated. The difference in the case of affiliate marketing is that advertisers pay their publishers only when the new client introduction results in a sale or a lead, making it a low-risk, high-reward environment for both parties.
This agreement governs participation in the Brian Tracy Affiliate Partnership Program only. Once you are accepted into the Program, you will be able to participate in the Program subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement. You should also note that if you are accepted to participate in the Program and your Site is thereafter determined (in our sole discretion) to be unsuitable based on the criteria below for the Program, we may terminate this Agreement:
Many laws specifically regulate the ways online ads are delivered. For example, online advertising delivered via email is more regulated than the same ad content delivered via banner ads. Among other restrictions, the U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 requires that any commercial email provide an opt-out mechanism.[108] Similarly, mobile advertising is governed by the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (TCPA), which (among other restrictions) requires user opt-in before sending advertising via text messaging.
Though eCommerce and affiliate channel efforts have gone global, it is not yet the seamless, omnichannel-like experience most merchants are hoping for. This is exacerbated by the fact that the leading networks and affiliates in one country may not be leaders in other countries. This makes a merchant's affiliate efforts quite challenging and requires an informed and nuanced approach to growing internationally.

You may log into your affiliate console to review your click through and potential Qualified Purchases statistics on a daily basis. The potential Qualified Purchases shown in this report have not been reviewed to confirm they meet all criteria for Qualified Purchases. As such, Commission Fees may not be issued for all Referred Customers that appear in the affiliate console.
As with offline advertising, industry participants have undertaken numerous efforts to self-regulate and develop industry standards or codes of conduct. Several United States advertising industry organizations jointly published Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising based on standards proposed by the FTC in 2009.[109] European ad associations published a similar document in 2011.[110] Primary tenets of both documents include consumer control of data transfer to third parties, data security, and consent for collection of certain health and financial data.[109]:2–4 Neither framework, however, penalizes violators of the codes of conduct.[111]
11.12. Modifications. We may modify any of the terms and conditions contained in this Agreement, at any time and in our sole discretion, by posting a change notice or a new agreement on the BTI Affiliate Partner Site and giving you notice of the modification through InfusionSoft. Modifications may include, for example, changes in the scope of available referral fees, referral fee schedules, payment procedures, and Program rules.
One thing you should strongly consider is promoting digital information products. These products are attractive for two reasons. First, they have higher conversion rates because the customers can get instant access and instant gratification when they purchase. Second, they typically offer much higher commission rates than physical products -- which means more profits for you.

According to an independent survey commissioned by Rakuten and Forrester, the US affiliate marketing industry is on track to become a 6.8 Billion dollar space by 2020, already driving more than 16% of total e-commerce orders in the US. This shouldn’t come as a surprise — given the Facebook and Google duopoly accounts for 89% of all ad spend, publishers have had to seek alternative methods to monetize, and a whopping 83% of merchants have already taken advantage of these affiliate networks to spark new relationships with key publishers. The terms for every deal and relationship vary, sometimes publishers are paid out on clicks, whereas other deals are built around the purchase, and historically this flexibility has worked out. The program made for desktop in the late 90’s has provided a solid foundation for both publishers and merchants alike.


Since the emergence of affiliate marketing, there has been little control over affiliate activity. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam, false advertising, forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers), adware, and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam, this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers.
Matomy Media Group is the leading digital performance-based advertising company. Its advertising platform combines all digital media channels than span across mobile, web and social platforms. Matomy Media Group provides media partners with the set of full- and self-service monetization options to monetize their inventory with high fill rate and eCPM. Matomy Media Group Ltd.’s securities are listed both on the High Growth Segment of the London Stock Exchange’s Main Market (LSE:MTMY) and on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.
Affiliate Program Limits. Each accepted Affiliate Lead will expire according to the information provided on the Program Policies Page. from the date the Affiliate Lead clicked on the Affiliate Link that was made available by you. We will pay you Commission for each new Customer who completes a Customer Transaction after clicking on an Affiliate Lead made available by you, provided that you remain eligible to receive Commission pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.  The start of the Customer’s subscription is determined by the date of the first purchase of the Subscription Service by the Customer and you will receive a Commission payment for that Customer Transaction only, regardless of any additional purchases made by that customer during their Subscription Service. For example, if the initial Customer Transaction is for one user of Sales Hub Professional, and there is a subsequent transaction by that same customer for an additional user of Sales Hub Professional for the same subscription, Affiliate will receive Commission for the initial user purchased only. The Affiliate will not be entitled to receive Commission on any additional purchases of HubSpot Products by that same Customer 

Yes is the short answer. Any time you are planing on generating money, you should have a plan. No plan means no real focus. There may be some 1/1000 percent of a chance you will succeed, but I haven't met them yet. If you have already started and have generated an income, record how. Doing so will give you material for use in expanding your business faster. 

6.2. Affiliates are paid approximately every 30 days, approximately 15 days after the prior period, provided that Company may, in its discretion, withhold payments until such time as referred customers have completed payment for our service. Payments shall be made by Company check or digital payment (such as PayPal). All payments are made in U.S. Dollars only. Additional payment options (including, but not limited to, electronic payments whether directly or via a 3rd-party provider) may be added at any time. Should this occur, a notice will be sent via email with details and instructions for enrollment. It is the sole responsibility of Affiliates to ensure that their payment information, regardless of means of transmission, is current and correct. Digital Payments (such as PayPal) sent to a valid email address cannot be reversed or retrans`mitted for any reason. Additionally, digital payments may be subject to total dollar amount limits as imposed by the payment provider, and if that limit should be exceeded the Affiliate will receive as many separate payments as necessary to reach the full amount earned in the given payment period.
This question can easily be rated on top of all abovementioned questions – at the end of the day models, types of offers and such wouldn’t matter if you don’t have a reliable channel to get your hard earned affiliate revenue. According to the recent stats, 41% of affiliates have abandoned an affiliate network because of their payments weren’t paid on time or at all. More than 65% of affiliates have explicitly stated that they would stop working with an affiliate network because of repeated payment issues.
The first key factor that distinguish a successful app affiliate network is its relationships with advertisers and ability to provide publishers with high quality traffic offers in lots of geo locations and verticals. The second one is the level of customer support, educational materials providing and training to help affiliate marketers to generate more revenue. Finally, providing additional incentives in a form of a loyal program, rewards and contests often makes affiliates decision to prefer specific app affiliate network.
As an affiliate, your marketing efforts may be for nothing if you don’t clearly understand the payment structure of your affiliate marketing agreement.  Before you jump on board, make sure the agreement specifies when, how, and why you’ll be compensated for your advertising efforts. As a merchant, a clear payment plan will ensure that your affiliates are fairly compensated, and could prevent a load of litigation down the road.
6.1. Each party owns and shall retain all right, title and interest in its names, logos, trademarks, service marks, trade dress, copyrights and proprietary technology, including, without limitation, those names, logos, trademarks, service marks, trade dress, copyrights and proprietary technology currently used or which may be developed and/or used by it in the future.12.2. We grant you a limited, revocable, non-exclusive, license to use the graphic image and text, which may include our name, logos, trademarks, service marks (collectively, the "Brian Tracy Marks"), designated in the Offer, only as provided to you through the Brian Tracy Affiliate Partnership Program and solely for the purpose of creating links from your Emails and Site to our Site pursuant to this Agreement. Except as expressly set forth in this Agreement or permitted by applicable law, you may not copy, distribute, modify, reverse engineer, or create derivative works from the same. You may not sublicense, assign or transfer any such licenses for the use of the same, and any attempt at such sublicense, assignment or transfer is void. Any prominent use of the Brian Tracy Marks on your Site must be approved by Brian Tracy prior to publishing. We may revoke your license at any time by giving you written notice.
Our ads, pop-ups, banners, videos and all our call-to-actions are designed to be irresistible. They match users’ and gamers’ interests at the time when they are most likely to respond. Whether you let our experts choose the best revenue-generator campaigns for your profile or pick-up your own selection, you start cashing in immediately. This makes Art of Click one of the most attractive mobile affiliate platform for app game monetization in Asia!

Entire Agreement. This Agreement is the entire agreement between us for the Affiliate Program and supersedes all other proposals and agreements, whether electronic, oral or written, between us. We object to and reject any additional or different terms proposed by you, including those contained in your purchase order, acceptance or website. Our obligations are not contingent on the delivery of any future functionality or features of the HubSpot Products or dependent on any oral or written public comments made by us regarding future functionality or features of the HubSpot Products. It is the express wish of both you and us that this Agreement and all related documents be drawn up in English. We might make versions of this Agreement available in languages other than English. If we do, the English version of this Agreement will govern our relationship and the translated version is provided for convenience only and will not be interpreted to modify the English version of this Agreement.
You agree not to intentionally solicit for employment any of our employees or contractors during the term of this Agreement and for a period of twelve (12) months following the termination or expiration of this Agreement.  Both you and we acknowledge that (i) any newspaper or other public solicitation not directed specifically to such person shall not be deemed to be a solicitation for purposes of this provision, and (ii) this provision is not intended to limit the mobility of either our employees or contractors.
Within an affiliate agreement, the affiliate acts as an independent contractor without a joint venture or other legal entity. By signing the affiliate agreement, the affiliate acknowledges understanding of company policies indicated in the website and agrees to the outlined terms. The affiliate agreement may also require that the affiliate agree not to include any spam on the website and generally comply with federal and state anti-spam laws.
Imagine: you’ve just scheduled a big last-minute meeting with a huge client in a city you’ve never been to before. You can’t ask them to wander the streets with you, looking at menus on the door, hoping there will be a seat available on a Friday night in New York… enter OpenTable! In most major cities, it’s the go-to app for finding a reservation at one of the top restaurants in town. Reserve online and even earn points toward discounts!
The API — which is available by application only — is also an interesting twist. Up to now, the company has not offered a widely-usable API for third parties to integrate its listings. What you can see if you look around is that developers and others have come up with alternative ways, such as using a man in the middle proxy or scraping the site, to get API-like information. (Using a technique like scraping is a violation of Airbnb’s Terms of Service.)
The first way to make YouTube and effective affiliate advertising method is to create your own high-quality videos related to a specific industry or niche. If you do not want to create your own videos, you can always outsource video creation through websites like Fiverr.com. Be warned, that this will take some time and effort. But if you consistently add new videos of high quality your videos will not only be seen by a lot of people, but a lot of people even subscribe to your channel. This means any time you come out with a new video they will be notified. Gaining a big following on YouTube is probably even more powerful than email marketing.
AWIN is probably best for experienced affiliates who can hit the ground running without a lot of guidance or feedback from the network. There is a $5 fee charged to apply to become an affiliate, but if you’re approved, the $5 will be added to your account. If your application is denied, however, you will lose the $5 fee. AWIN operates globally, but it is most heavily concentrated on British and EU merchants.
Each of the parties hereto agrees that all information including, without limitation, the terms of this Agreement, business and financial information, FatCow and vendor lists, and pricing and sales information, shall remain strictly confidential and shall not be utilized for any purpose outside the terms of this Agreement except and solely to the extent that any such information is (a) already lawfully known to or independently developed by the receiving party, (b) disclosed in published materials, (c) generally known to the public, or (d) lawfully obtained from any third party any obligation of confidentiality to the discloser hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, each party is hereby authorized to deliver a copy of any such information (a) to any person pursuant to a valid subpoena or order issued by any court or administrative agency of competent jurisdiction, (b) to its accountants, attorneys, or other agents on a confidential basis, and (c) otherwise as required by applicable law, rule, regulation, or legal process including, without limitation, the Securities Exchange Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Libertex is the brand name of a group of companies providing clients from over 120 countries with platforms and services for forex trading, CFDs, and other online trading and educational products. We offer every client effective tools for training, analytics and education, as well as personal support where they want it. Libertex has over 650 employees worldwide.
Scammers can take advantage of consumers' difficulties verifying an online persona's identity,[98]:1 leading to artifices like phishing (where scam emails look identical to those from a well-known brand owner)[99] and confidence schemes like the Nigerian "419" scam.[100][101][102] The Internet Crime Complaint Center received 289,874 complaints in 2012, totaling over half a billion dollars in losses, most of which originated with scam ads.[103][104]
888.com is a premium gaming destination and a well established name in the casino and poker circuit. Its site offers numerous sub-brands including 888sport, 888ladies, 888bingo, 888casino and 888poker, as well as ReefClub Casino. The 888 family of companies attract millions of players, and the company provides affiliates with frequent promotions to keep players interested.
Some web browsers offer privacy modes where users can hide information about themselves from publishers and advertisers. Among other consequences, advertisers can't use cookies to serve targeted ads to private browsers. Most major browsers have incorporated Do Not Track options into their browser headers, but the regulations currently are only enforced by the honor system.[89][90][91]
This Affiliate Agreement ("Agreement") contains the complete terms and conditions between us, FatCow ("FatCow") and you, regarding your application to and participation in, the FatCow Affiliate Program (the “Affiliate Program”) as an affiliate of FatCow (an “Affiliate”), and the establishment of links from your website to our website, https://www.FatCow.com.
Commission and Payment. Requirements for Payment; Forfeiture. In order to receive payment under this Agreement, you must have: (i) agreed to the terms of this Agreement (generally completed through the Affiliate Tool); (ii) completed all steps necessary to create your account in the Affiliate Tool in accordance with our directions, (iii) have a valid and up-to-date paypal account and updated the Affiliate Tool with such account (iv) completed any and all required tax documentation in order for HubSpot to process any payments that may be owed to you.
Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[30] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.

6.1. Each party owns and shall retain all right, title and interest in its names, logos, trademarks, service marks, trade dress, copyrights and proprietary technology, including, without limitation, those names, logos, trademarks, service marks, trade dress, copyrights and proprietary technology currently used or which may be developed and/or used by it in the future.12.2. We grant you a limited, revocable, non-exclusive, license to use the graphic image and text, which may include our name, logos, trademarks, service marks (collectively, the "Brian Tracy Marks"), designated in the Offer, only as provided to you through the Brian Tracy Affiliate Partnership Program and solely for the purpose of creating links from your Emails and Site to our Site pursuant to this Agreement. Except as expressly set forth in this Agreement or permitted by applicable law, you may not copy, distribute, modify, reverse engineer, or create derivative works from the same. You may not sublicense, assign or transfer any such licenses for the use of the same, and any attempt at such sublicense, assignment or transfer is void. Any prominent use of the Brian Tracy Marks on your Site must be approved by Brian Tracy prior to publishing. We may revoke your license at any time by giving you written notice.
MaxBounty is a Canada-based performance-marketing network, founded in 2004. The company’s business focus is on striking an equilibrium of interests for both sides of the performance marketing field – affiliates and advertisers.  It hosts a portfolio of over 1,500 campaigns for affiliates to choose from, it covers such verticals as Market Research, Diet, Dating, Finance, Real Estate, Social Games, and more.
LinkConnector is something of a mixed bag, so it’s probably best for experienced affiliates who have become disillusioned with other networks and are looking to expand. LinkConnector’s bizarre mix of high-quality products and a low-quality dashboard make it hard to truly assess its viability, but their exclusive deals with some vendors can make it a true home run for publishers working in certain niches.
Company will undertake all reasonable efforts to provide technical assistance to MA under this Agreement when MA is unable to resolve certain technical issues and to rectify or provide solutions to problems where the Technology does not function as described in the Technology documentation, but Company does not guarantee that the problems will be solved or that any item will be error-free. This product support commitment is only applicable to Company’s Technology running under the certified environments specified in the release notes of the end user licensing agreement for that Technology or Package. Company may from time to time, however, discontinue Technology or versions and stop supporting Technology or versions one year after discontinuance, or otherwise discontinue any support service. Company is not liable for incidental, special or consequential damages for any reason (including loss of data or other business or property damage), even if foreseeable or if MA or Customer has advised of such a claim. Company's liability shall not exceed the fees that MA has paid under this Agreement. MA agrees that the pricing for the services would be substantially higher but for these limitations.
Please don’t leave us! We encourage all of our affiliates to actively promote AffiliateWP to keep earning referrals. If we can help you come up with ideas on how to promote AffiliateWP, please let us know – we’re here for you! An affiliate account is considered dormant if no visits have been generated after a 6-month period. A dormant affiliate account will be temporarily deactivated if no visits have been generated after 6 months. But we don’t even want to go there right now, right?! Let’s work together to help you start earning some cash!
Limitation of Liability. IF, NOTWITHSTANDING THE OTHER TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, WE ARE DETERMINED TO HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY, THE PARTIES AGREE THAT OUR AGGREGATE LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO THE TOTAL COMMISSION AMOUNTS YOU HAVE ACTUALLY EARNED FOR THE RELATED CUSTOMER TRANSACTIONS IN THE TWELVE MONTH PERIOD PRECEDING THE EVENT GIVING RISE TO A CLAIM.

There’s a good reason why ClickBank is still a strong contender, however it does tend to focus more on digital products which may be of questionable quality. Yes, the review process is more professional these days, but it’s still primarily focused on selling digital products, especially “how to make money” courses and the like. That being said, there are some genuinely high-quality products on offer, and few affiliate programs are bigger than ClickBank, especially in selling (primarily digital) books.
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