Understanding the effectiveness of your affiliate program is crucial for sustainable success. Identifying your top-performing affiliate marketers, for example, can help you double-down on what’s working. Why are they so effective? Were they very loyal to your brand before becoming an affiliate? If yes, then maybe you need to contact your most frequent shoppers about joining the program.
As used herein, “Confidential Information” means all confidential information disclosed by a party ("Disclosing Party") to the other party (“Receiving Party”), (i) whether orally or in writing, that is designated as confidential, and (ii) HubSpot customer and prospect information, whether or not otherwise designated as confidential. Confidential Information does not include any information that (i) is or becomes generally known to the public without breach of any obligation owed to the Disclosing Party or (ii) was known to the Receiving Party prior to its disclosure by the Disclosing Party without breach of any obligation owed to the Disclosing Party.  The Receiving Party shall: (i) protect the confidentiality of the Confidential Information of the Disclosing Party using the same degree of care that it uses with its own confidential information, but in no event less than reasonable care, (ii) not use any Confidential Information of the Disclosing Party for any purpose outside the scope of this Agreement, (iii) not disclose Confidential Information of the Disclosing Party to any third party, and (iv) limit access to Confidential Information of the Disclosing Party to its employees, contractors and agents. The Receiving Party may disclose Confidential Information of the Disclosing Party if required to do so under any federal, state, or local law, statute, rule or regulation, subpoena or legal process.
In another example of effective affiliate marketing, Button recently launched app-to-app marketing technology that shows users relevant “buttons” in one app that connect them to another app. So if one makes a restaurant reservation on OpenTable, a button might link to Uber with the destination pre-filled. This is both relevant and a much better user experience that feels far less like advertising.
Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 3 above and otherwise in this Agreement, we grant you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, revocable license to (i) access our website through the Links solely in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and (ii) solely in connection with such Links, to use the FatCow trademark and logo and similar identifying material provided by us (collectively, the "Licensed Materials"), for the sole purpose of selling FatCow Products and Services on your Affiliate Site and as approved in advance by us. You may not alter, modify, or change the Licensed Materials in any way. You are only entitled to use the Licensed Materials while you are an Affiliate in good standing and in compliance with all of the terms of this Agreement. 

You can make really good commissions from the eBay partner but it depends on the products which you decide to promote. Interestingly the commission levels vary according to where you are in the world not just on the products you decide to promote. One of the great reasons to sign up is that you can earn DOUBLE commissions in your first three months. They offer free to use link generators, ad creatives and widgets for you to promote different eBay items. eBay has over 162 Million active buyers which means there is a great potential to convert your traffic.


Until Elon Musk releases his self-driving particle beam transporter to the public, flying is still the way to go. So why not take your transportation to new heights by hiring a private jet rather than flying coach? Stratajet is like Uber, but for jets – it’s one of the first platforms out there that connects private plane owners with luxury-loving travelers. Skip the airport wait and take to the skies with class!
“The API allows development teams to securely Oauth into new and existing Airbnb accounts,” Airbnb notes. “Your application users will have the ability to push updates to content, rates, and availability. As Airbnb guests book your listings, we’ll pass back messaging and reservation details, allowing applications to build custom workflows and create amazing experiences for our shared guests.”
9.1. Company grants to you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, revocable right to (i) access our site through HTML links solely in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and (ii) solely in connection with such links, to use our logos, trade names, trademarks, and similar identifying material (collectively, the "Licensed Materials") that we provide to you or authorize for such purpose. You are only entitled to use the Licensed Materials to the extent that you are a member in good standing of AWeber's Affiliate Program. You agree that all uses of the Licensed Materials will be on behalf of AWeber and the goodwill associated therewith (including any data derived from the Program) will inure to the sole benefit of AWeber.
Wewe Media Network is a performance marketing network that operates on CPA monetization model. It was launched by the group of 3 affiliate veterans. The network features proprietary visitor profile-offer matching technology that is capable to bring high conversion rates and EPCs. Every affiliate manager at WeweMedia used to run 6-7 figure campaigns internally. This ensures Wewe Media Group can provide the required support and advice.
Company agrees to defend or, at its option, settle any claim or action against MA to the extent arising from a third party claim that a permitted use of the Technology by the end users infringes any U.S. patent or copyright, provided Company has control of such defense or settlement negotiations and MA gives Company prompt notice of any such claim and provides reasonable assistance in its defense. In the event of such a claim of infringement, Company, at its option, may provide MA with substitute Technology reasonably satisfactory to MA to replace those affected Technologies then in MA's inventory. Company will not be liable under this Section if the infringement arises out of MA's activities after Company has notified MA that Company believes in good faith that MA's activities will result in such infringement. The foregoing states the entire liability of Company with respect to infringement of intellectual property rights.
11.6. Assignment. You may not assign this Agreement, by operation of law or otherwise, without our prior written consent, which may be withheld in our sole discretion. Subject to that restriction, this Agreement will be binding on, inure to the benefit of, and enforceable against the parties and their respective successors and assigns. Our failure to enforce your strict performance of any provision of this Agreement will not constitute a waiver of our right to subsequently enforce such provision or any other provision of this Agreement.

The Market Health Affiliate Program allows you to market and promote the world’s leading health and beauty offers online. We offer the highest paying affiliate program and best tracking software in our industry. If you have a web site and are interested in making money off the explosive sales in the health and beauty industry, then MarketHealth.com is perfect for you. Offers include products in the health, beauty, supplement, weight loss, and skin care industries.


9.1. This agreement shall be governed by Maine law, and Maine courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction. Both parties waive personal jurisdiction to the State of Maine and any state or federal court thereof. Any dispute shall be mediated in good faith, with the parties splitting the cost thereof, in the State of Maine until a resolution or an impasse is reached.
Affiliate marketing is an online advertising channel in which advertisers (online merchants that sell products or services) pay publishers (independent parties that promote the products or services of an advertiser on their Web site) only for results, such as a visitor making a purchase or filling out a form, rather than paying simply to reach a particular audience. This "pay-for-performance" model is in essence the modern version of the "finders'-fee" model, where individuals who introduce new clients to a business are compensated. The difference in the case of affiliate marketing is that advertisers pay their publishers only when the new client introduction results in a sale or a lead, making it a low-risk, high-reward environment for both parties.
Privacy/Data Collection. MA will at all times during the term of this Agreement maintain appropriate technical and organizational measures to protect any end-user data that it collects, accesses or processes in connection with this Agreement against unauthorized or unlawful use, disclosure, processing or alteration. MA will act only on Company's instructions in relation to the collection, use, disclosure and processing of any such end-user data, but in all instances in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations.
Colmex Pro is the leading European Regulated CFD Broker. Offering Tier 2 CFD’s, as well as Live Equities, Indices, Commodities, Futures, and Forex, Colmex Pro offers nearly every investment vehicle available on the US Stock Market to international day traders. Coupled with their partner’s educational packages and trade room access Colmex Pro offers investors the best opportunity to grow and learn how to day trade successfully. CPA up to $1000
StudioPress itself is somewhat of a niche product as it is targeted to existing WordPress users who found setting up and managing a WordPress site too difficult or time-consuming. StudioPress prides itself on being easy to use, but their main claim to fame is that their hosted websites are “faster and more secure” than other WordPress hosting companies as well as using the “Genesis framework” which is supposedly more SEO friendly than other WordPress builds.
By quite a large margin Amazon has the largest affiliate marketing program out there, with products from more than 1.5 million sellers. Amazon has the most easy-to-use technology of all the affiliate programs I will be reviewing today. Beginners to affiliate marketing with even the most limited technical expertise will have no problems in getting up and running with the Amazon associates program, while more experienced marketers can create custom tools and websites with the APIs and advanced implementations available to them. The great thing about Amazon is that anything from kids toys to laptops can generate sales if they are purchased through any Amazon affiliate link.

People are embracing ad-blocking tools because they are tired of seeing irrelevant, intrusive ads. Consequently, ad-blocking tools also keep relevant ads from reaching potential customers. This is a major drawback for the digital marketing ecosystem of publishers, marketers, agencies, merchants, and other businesses that depend on advertising revenue.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Its hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, and the Apple TV digital media player. Apple’s consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, and iCloud.
It’s a program that is established by a company to help it to sell products or services. It regulates all relationships between the company and affiliates who are signed up to that program. It provides affiliates a dashboard to manage advertising campaigns they run, track commissions they earn and creatives they can use to advertise the company’s products or services.
SkimLinks works very similarly to VigLinks in that it is designed for bloggers who don’t want to do a lot of hands-on work to participate in an affiliate program. SkimLinks also works much like VigLinks in that it uses a plugin or script to create dynamic links in your content to send visitors to higher paying offers from merchants. SkimLinks claims to work with over 24,000 merchants/advertisers.
On the other hand, the report also shows that by 2020, mobile apps -- app store purchases and in-app advertising -- are expected to generate $189 billion. Although getting consumers to download and commit to your app may be difficult, there is definitely potential for earning and long-term success with apps and mobile advertising. Because of this, you should be doing everything you can to measure the success of your campaigns so that you know where to spend your marketing dollars -- and where not to.
StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.
Search engine marketing, or SEM, is designed to increase a website's visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs). Search engines provide sponsored results and organic (non-sponsored) results based on a web searcher's query.[19]:117 Search engines often employ visual cues to differentiate sponsored results from organic results. Search engine marketing includes all of an advertiser's actions to make a website's listing more prominent for topical keywords.

Online banner advertising began in the early 1990s as page owners sought additional revenue streams to support their content. Commercial online service Prodigy displayed banners at the bottom of the screen to promote Sears products. The first clickable web ad was sold by Global Network Navigator in 1993 to a Silicon Valley law firm.[16] In 1994, web banner advertising became mainstream when HotWired, the online component of Wired Magazine, sold banner ads to AT&T and other companies. The first AT&T ad on HotWired had a 44% click-through rate, and instead of directing clickers to AT&T's website, the ad linked to an online tour of seven of the world's most acclaimed art museums.[17][18]
General Rights. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, Company hereby grants to MA the right to advertise, market and sell to corporate users, government agencies and educational facilities (“Clients”) for their own internal language learning, soft skills and communication purposes only, and not for remarketing or redistribution, and not for use in a data center environment for multiple users Clients, unless otherwise agreed to by Company prior in writing, the Technology listed in Schedule A of this Agreement, and to sell and/or bundle Technology Maintenance for the Technology and to provide first line technical support and implementation services for the Technology in the territories listed in Schedule A of this Agreement, providing MA meets the criteria required for delivering services according to Schedule A.
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.
Another one of the highest paying and most popular dating affiliate programs is eHarmony, which is based on the actual earnings that can be made from each referred sale. Up to $188 can be made from a single sale. In general, the members at eHarmony are typically looking to find serious long term relationships, so many of them are willing to pay extra to find similar people. 

HomeNav will be solely responsible for fulfilling all orders for its products and services and payment processing, and customers who buy products and services through the Affiliate Marketing Program will be deemed customers of HomeNav. Accordingly, all rules, policies, operating procedures, and information concerning customer orders and sales will apply to those customers, including HomeNav’s rules of privacy, confidentiality, terms of use, and terms of sale. HomeNav may change its policies, operating procedures, and terms of use and sale at any time without notice to Affiliate.
The Market Health Affiliate Program allows you to market and promote the world’s leading health and beauty offers online. We offer the highest paying affiliate program and best tracking software in our industry. If you have a web site and are interested in making money off the explosive sales in the health and beauty industry, then MarketHealth.com is perfect for you. Offers include products in the health, beauty, supplement, weight loss, and skin care industries.
Once you’ve recruited your affiliates, you’ll want to keep tabs on them and the performance of your program. Regular communication is essential to establishing a strong affiliate program, and this can happen via email, as that’s the preferred method of communication for most affiliate marketers, per the AffStat 2016 Affiliate Marketing Benchmark Report.
Tradedoubler was founded in 1999 by two young Swedish entrepreneurs. They have offices in the UK and multiple countries throughout Europe, including Sweden, Germany, France, Poland and Spain. Their focus has always been to provide smarter results for both clients and affiliates through technology. In 18 years, they’ve amassed an army of 180,000 active publishers, connecting them to over 2,000 merchants in Europe and the UK. Many of these merchants are household names.
Wewe Media Network is a performance marketing network that operates on CPA monetization model. It was launched by the group of 3 affiliate veterans. The network features proprietary visitor profile-offer matching technology that is capable to bring high conversion rates and EPCs. Every affiliate manager at WeweMedia used to run 6-7 figure campaigns internally. This ensures Wewe Media Group can provide the required support and advice.
affiliate 101 Amazon AM Days attribution BBJ Black Friday BlogHer Bonobos conferences CRM Customer Service Cyber Monday e-book Entrepreneur flex schedules Fraud Fremium FTC global Global Affiliate Google holidays incrementality Lending Bubble Mortage NDA Outsourcing Pacesetters Panda Pay Per Click Pinnacle Awards Rent the Runway Revenue Sales Strategy SEO ShareASale Shop.org small business Start-Up summer meeting trademark hijacking volunteering Wayfair webinar working parents
​eCommerce has gone global and knows no borders. As a result, shoppers are more often making retail purchases from companies based outside of their own country. Borderfree Chief Strategy Officer Kris Green commented on this trend saying, “You [the consumer] don’t necessarily know or care, you just know that it’s coming to you and you know what you’re going to have to pay. I find more and more consumers just want to be able to see the price, have no surprises and will be indifferent as to where the product is coming from.”

BitterStrawberry.com has 3 mobile traffic moneymaking concepts, that you as an affiliate marketer, newbie or experienced, can immediately start running offers with them. You get all the tools you need to monetize up to 99,9% of your traffic. No matter which is more suited for you, you will have everything in house: performance, highest conversion direct offers, optimization and last, but not least, custom guidance from experienced Affiliate Managers. And everything is for free! No costs, no subscriptions fees! 

This the just normal economics of internet marketing coming into play. Affiliates are not really used to “normal” profit margins in a traditional business sense. We talk about 200-300% ROI per day like it’s normal. When you’re on native advertising for affiliate marketing campaigns, you’ll find that the more you scale, the more your ROI goes down (but your overall profit goes up).
MA recognizes that the Technology in source form (code or listing) is the exclusive property of Company and/or its Affiliates and is proprietary to and the trade secret of Company and/or its Affiliates. MA agrees that it shall not, by itself or in association with any other party, reproduce, duplicate, copy, decompile, disassemble or reverse engineer the Technology in source form (code or listing) in any media.
Desktop tracking relies on pixels, a snippet of code that picks up the end-user’s identification, aka a cookie. Pixels rely on the user’s browser to track conversion, which is easy to set up, but on smartphones, cookies are blocked as a default setting — meaning cookies are never placed on a user’s mobile device. More recently, workarounds are being created for the mobile web, but today no solution exists that allows for pixels to consistently fire into a mobile app as cookies are never used in the app world. It’s complex to find a unique identifier that can be passed back to accurately attribute.
The increased use of ad-blocking software is disrupting the digital marketing industry as we know it. People have grown tired of “interruption advertising,” whereby irrelevant ads are forced upon them or they are tricked into clicking them on their small mobile screens. Successful brand marketing depends on building relationships with consumers, and as customers demand more control over the types of ads they see, affiliate marketing has proven to be an effective way to establish, strengthen, and maintain these invaluable relationships more authentically.
Leadpages also offers an option for affiliates to send referrals to attend a Leadpages webinar with standard commissions paid for any sale generated from the webinar. However, Leadpages requires you to get at least 150 people to sign up (but not necessarily attend) each webinar. Leadpages also offers affiliates the ability to view blog posts and videos on Leadpages’s site, again with the standard commission paid for any sales.
For the purposes of this Agreement, “Link(s)” means the code that Ticketfly makes available to Affiliate that is used for linking from your Site to web pages on Ticketfly.com, and may include banners, text, search boxes, buttons, or other graphics or devices. All Links used in the Program shall be served by the Shareasale Network. Ticketfly may, in its sole discretion, consider written requests to use other serving mechanisms, on a case by case basis. Affiliate shall not modify the Links in any way. Ticketfly will not be responsible for errors that occur in the tracking of transactions if Affiliate has made or caused any such modification.
Because of its efficiency, it is used during all stages of the customer journey – from the phase of rising brand awareness to the retention phase. Of course, if the promoted product or service is satisfying, customers will naturally spread the word about it. This means affiliate marketing ultimately helps with generating word of mouth and every good marketer knows nothing can beat the power of recommendation.  
Affiliate marketing occurs when advertisers organize third parties to generate potential customers for them. Third-party affiliates receive payment based on sales generated through their promotion.[24]:22 Affiliate marketers generate traffic to offers from affiliate networks, and when the desired action is taken by the visitor, the affiliate earns a commission. These desired actions can be an email submission, a phone call, filling out an online form, or an online order being completed.
StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.
You and FatCow are independent contractors, and nothing in this Agreement will create any partnership, joint venture, agency, franchise, sales representative, or employment relationship between the parties. You will have no authority to make or accept any offers or representations on our behalf. You will not make any statement, whether on your Affiliate Site or otherwise, that contradicts anything in this section.
The affiliate relationship does not represent a professional or formal agreement, and as an affiliate you are not an employee of AffiliateWP, LLC. or Sandhills Development, LLC. You agree that this is not a legally binding relationship and as a result may not take legal action against AffiliateWP, LLC. and Sandhills Development, LLC. These affiliate terms and conditions are subject to change without notice.
The concept of affiliate marketing on the Internet was conceived of, put into practice and patented by William J. Tobin, the founder of PC Flowers & Gifts. Launched on the Prodigy Network in 1989, PC Flowers & Gifts remained on the service until 1996. By 1993, PC Flowers & Gifts generated sales in excess of $6 million per year on the Prodigy service. In 1998, PC Flowers and Gifts developed the business model of paying a commission on sales to the Prodigy Network.[4][5]
6.7. Any missing payments, regardless of method of transmission or cause of loss, are subject to a waiting period of one hundred eighty (180) days from issuance before a replacement may be generated. Checks are subject to a replacement fee of $25 per check, which will be deducted from the original payment amount. Should this deduction cause the total check amount to fall below the minimum payment threshold as outlined in section 6.5 the Company reserves the right to withhold issuance until the threshold is reached in subsequent payment periods.
Use above mentioned technique to find regional affiliate networks but make sure networks you find do work with affiliates from other countries. In many countries local affiliate industry market is presented with big international companies and local-based players. A good example would be India, where you can register as an affiliate to work with Amazon India Affiliate Program, as well as Flipkart Affiliate Program and SnapDeal Affiliate Program.
Shopify is probably the most popular e-commerce solutions provider out there, but because there are so many products and options, newcomers can easily get confused. If you believe your audience has products to sell and could benefit from Shopify’s products and are able to elucidate the benefits of signing up for Shopify, you can definitely earn some big money with their affiliate program.
ClickDealer is a global performance marketing agency, founded in 2012 by Max Polyakov in Menlo Park, US. A distinguishing feature for this company is its focus direct relationships with advertisers to secure more beneficial conditions for the company’s publishers. Specifically ClickDealer organizes annual MeetUp event for its most loyal partners. Another feature that stands the company’s affiliate program apart from the rest is a loyalty program that provides a number of rewards for ClickDealer partners. Also the company provides publishers with a special list offers that is always less than a week old.

AWIN is probably best for experienced affiliates who can hit the ground running without a lot of guidance or feedback from the network. There is a $5 fee charged to apply to become an affiliate, but if you’re approved, the $5 will be added to your account. If your application is denied, however, you will lose the $5 fee. AWIN operates globally, but it is most heavily concentrated on British and EU merchants.
2.2. All Affiliates that engage in email marketing must have the consent of the recipient to send such email and shall maintain records evidencing such consent including, without limitation: (a) Subscriber opt-in date; (b) Registration source; (c) First name; (d) Last name; (e) E-mail address; (f) Privacy Policy of Source Site; (g) Any other information collected; and (h) Affiliate will supply such records to Company within one (1) business day of a request.
Sponsored search (also called sponsored links, search ads, or paid search) allows advertisers to be included in the sponsored results of a search for selected keywords. Search ads are often sold via real-time auctions, where advertisers bid on keywords.[19]:118[53] In addition to setting a maximum price per keyword, bids may include time, language, geographical, and other constraints.[19]:118 Search engines originally sold listings in order of highest bids.[19]:119 Modern search engines rank sponsored listings based on a combination of bid price, expected click-through rate, keyword relevancy and site quality.[21]
An affiliate network helps publishers to monetize their inventory by providing a variety of options, as well as all necessary tools for running campaigns (tracking links, creatives etc.). For advertisers, affiliate network services and benefits include payment processing, ad tracking technology, ad campaign reporting tools, as well as access to a vast database of publishers. Affiliate networks work on a CPA (Cost per Action) based model which means that they can effectively deliver a 100% fill rate for publishers.  Some publishers, known as ‘affiliates or ‘media buyers’ will create or buy traffic using advertising specifically to promote campaigns from a network (rather than just to monetize existing inventory).
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.
Affiliate shall not use, procure, bid on, or otherwise arrange for a Sponsored Link (defined below) on any Internet search engine, portal, sponsored advertising service or other search or referral service (a “Service”) which Sponsored Link uses or includes the terms “Ticketfly,” “Ticketfly.com,” or any other trademarks, trade names, service marks, corporate names, or other similar general intellectual property right owned or licensed by Ticketfly or any parent, subsidiary, or other affiliate of Ticketfly.

As an affiliate, your marketing efforts may be for nothing if you don’t clearly understand the payment structure of your affiliate marketing agreement.  Before you jump on board, make sure the agreement specifies when, how, and why you’ll be compensated for your advertising efforts. As a merchant, a clear payment plan will ensure that your affiliates are fairly compensated, and could prevent a load of litigation down the road.
Desktop tracking relies on pixels, a snippet of code that picks up the end-user’s identification, aka a cookie. Pixels rely on the user’s browser to track conversion, which is easy to set up, but on smartphones, cookies are blocked as a default setting — meaning cookies are never placed on a user’s mobile device. More recently, workarounds are being created for the mobile web, but today no solution exists that allows for pixels to consistently fire into a mobile app as cookies are never used in the app world. It’s complex to find a unique identifier that can be passed back to accurately attribute.
One thing you should strongly consider is promoting digital information products. These products are attractive for two reasons. First, they have higher conversion rates because the customers can get instant access and instant gratification when they purchase. Second, they typically offer much higher commission rates than physical products -- which means more profits for you.
There’s a good reason why ClickBank is still a strong contender, however it does tend to focus more on digital products which may be of questionable quality. Yes, the review process is more professional these days, but it’s still primarily focused on selling digital products, especially “how to make money” courses and the like. That being said, there are some genuinely high-quality products on offer, and few affiliate programs are bigger than ClickBank, especially in selling (primarily digital) books. 
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